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❶As of , there are approximately chimpanzees in U.

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The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously , intramuscularly , or subcutaneously ; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food.

Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. There are several different types of acute toxicity tests. This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in , replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure , which use fewer animals and cause less suffering.

Irritancy can be measured using the Draize test , where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit. For Draize eye testing, the test involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress".

The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month acute , one to three months subchronic , and more than three months chronic to test general toxicity damage to organs , eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity , carcinogenicity , teratogenicity , and reproductive problems.

The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete. These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential".

Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe.

Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U. Cosmetics testing on animals is banned in India, the European Union, Israel and Norway [] [] while legislation in the U. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal , has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg , asking that the ban be quashed.

Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve:.

It is estimated that 20 million animals are used annually for educational purposes in the United States including, classroom observational exercises, dissections and live-animal surgeries.

States and school districts mandating students be offered the choice to not dissect. The Sonoran Arthropod Institute hosts an annual Invertebrates in Education and Conservation Conference to discuss the use of invertebrates in education.

In November , the U. The operator is required to amputate a cockroach's antennae , use sandpaper to wear down the shell, insert a wire into the thorax , and then glue the electrodes and circuit board onto the insect's back. A mobile phone app can then be used to control it via Bluetooth. The makers of the "Roboroach" have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and state that the device is intended to encourage children to become interested in neuroscience.

Animals are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing. In the US military, goats are commonly used to train combat medics. Goats have become the main animal species used for this purpose after the Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training in the s.

Coast Guard announced that it would reduce the number of animals it uses in its training exercises by half after PETA released video showing Guard members cutting off the limbs of unconscious goats with tree trimmers and inflicting other injuries with a shotgun, pistol, ax and a scalpel.

The moral and ethical questions raised by performing experiments on animals are subject to debate, and viewpoints have shifted significantly over the 20th century. Still, a wide range of viewpoints exist.

The view that animals have moral rights animal rights is a philosophical position proposed by Tom Regan , among others, who argues that animals are beings with beliefs and desires, and as such are the "subjects of a life" with moral value and therefore moral rights. Likewise, a "moral dilemma" view suggests that avoiding potential benefit to humans is unacceptable on similar grounds, and holds the issue to be a dilemma in balancing such harm to humans to the harm done to animals in research.

Another prominent position is that of philosopher Peter Singer , who argues that there are no grounds to include a being's species in considerations of whether their suffering is important in utilitarian moral considerations. Governments such as the Netherlands and New Zealand have responded to the public's concerns by outlawing invasive experiments on certain classes of non-human primates, particularly the great apes.

NIH announced in that it would dramatically reduce and eventually phase out experiments on chimpanzees. The British government has required that the cost to animals in an experiment be weighed against the gain in knowledge. Various specific cases of animal testing have drawn attention, including both instances of beneficial scientific research, and instances of alleged ethical violations by those performing the tests.

The fundamental properties of muscle physiology were determined with work done using frog muscles including the force generating mechanism of all muscle, [] the length-tension relationship, [] and the force-velocity curve [] , and frogs are still the preferred model organism due to the long survival of muscles in vitro and the possibility of isolating intact single-fiber preparations not possible in other organisms.

Concerns have been raised over the mistreatment of primates undergoing testing. In the case of Britches , a macaque monkey at the University of California, Riverside , gained public attention. He had his eyelids sewn shut and a sonar sensor on his head as part of an experiment to test sensory substitution devices for blind people.

The laboratory was raided by Animal Liberation Front in , removing Britches and other animals. Following release of the footage, the U. Threats of violence to animal researchers are not uncommon. In , a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists.

The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to hours, and then euthanized.

Demonstrations were held in front of his home. A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack. These attacks—as well as similar incidents that caused the Southern Poverty Law Center to declare in that the animal rights movement had "clearly taken a turn toward the more extreme"—prompted the US government to pass the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act and the UK government to add the offense of "Intimidation of persons connected with animal research organisation" to the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act Such legislation and the arrest and imprisonment of activists may have decreased the incidence of attacks.

Most scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. The "Three Rs" [72] [] are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries. Whilst replacement of animals, i. The scientists and engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute have created "organs-on-a-chip", including the "lung-on-a-chip" and "gut-on-a-chip". These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs.

The chips can be used instead of animals in in vitro disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing. Another non-animal research method is in silico or computer simulation and mathematical modeling which seeks to investigate and ultimately predict toxicity and drug affects in humans without using animals.

This is done by investigating test compounds on a molecular level using recent advances in technological capabilities with the ultimate goal of creating treatments unique to each patient. Microdosing is another alternative to the use of animals in experimentation. Microdosing is a process whereby volunteers are administered a small dose of a test compound allowing researchers to investigate its pharmacological affects without harming the volunteers.

Microdosing can replace the use of animals in pre-clinical drug screening and can reduce the number of animals used in safety and toxicity testing.

Additional alternative methods include positron emission tomography PET , which allows scanning of the human brain in vivo , [] and comparative epidemiological studies of disease risk factors among human populations. Simulators and computer programs have also replaced the use of animals in dissection , teaching and training exercises.

These bodies are mainly driven by responding to regulatory requirements, such as supporting the cosmetics testing ban in the EU by validating alternative methods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Animal studies disambiguation. History of animal testing. Animal testing on invertebrates. Animal testing on frogs , Animal testing on rabbits , Animal testing on rodents , Draize test , and Median lethal dose.

Laika and Soviet space dogs. Animal testing on non-human primates. Laboratory animal sources and International primate trade. Animal cognition , Pain in animals , Pain in fish , Pain in amphibians , Pain in invertebrates , and Pain in cephalopods.

Euthanasia and Animal euthanasia. Testing cosmetics on animals. Animal welfare , Animal rights , and History of animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing. Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original PDF on 25 June British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. Archived from the original PDF on 13 May The Humane Society of the United States". Archived from the original on 23 July Laboratory Primate Advocacy Group.

Archived from the original on 13 October A study and translations from his book Al-Mukhtar". The Elixir Sulfanilamide Incident". US Food and Drug Administration. Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Animal experimentation from antiquity to the end of the eighteenth century: Vivisection in Historical Perspective. Croom Helm, London, , p. The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The Conflict , University of California Press, p.

The Brown Dog Affair. Two Sevens Publishing, A New Life , W. Animal Research in Medicine: The Story of the Research Defence Society. March —; Selected by the committee. Code of Federal Regulations. Animal Legal Defense Fund. Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 7 July Reliability of Protocol Reviews for Animal Research". While growth has leveled off and there have been significant reductions in some countries, the number of animals used in research globally still totals almost million a year.

Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Journal of Medical Ethics. Protest, Process and Public Policy: An Analysis of Strategic Issues. Government Printing Office, , p. In , the Laboratory Animal Breeders Association estimated in testimony before Congress that the number of mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, and rabbits used in was around 60 million.

House of Representatives, , p. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Tissue Engineering Part C Methods. Archived from the original PDF on 7 June Retrieved 23 July Check date values in: Identification of virulence factors using a bacterial genome library and multiple invertebrate hosts". Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Retrieved 9 July International Primate Protection League. Hoffeld and Martin L. Fleur, Nicholas 12 June Will Call All Chimps 'Endangered ' ".

American Journal of Primatology. National Center for Research Resources. Archived from the original on 22 September Animals, Property, and the Law. Temple University Press, , p. Senate Committee on Commerce, 25 March Where Do the Animals Come From? American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Journal of Animal Science. Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and Science.

Oxford University Press, , pp. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 25 January Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Welfare. Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. Archived from the original PDF on 15 August Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Molecular mechanisms in worms and mammals". Applications for psycho-neuroethology studies". The Science of Birdsong , Academic Press, Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 30 January Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

A report on the use of primates in experiments Archived 27 February at the Wayback Machine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. European Journal of Endocrinology.

More than a cosmetic change" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Archived from the original on 18 March Humane Society of the United States.

Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 27 February The Times of India. Retrieved 14 October Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Animal Use in Education. The Human Use of Animals. The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 10 November Does shooting goats save soldiers' lives?

Archived from the original on 15 December Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, The ethics of research involving animals at the Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Studying interrelated processes is also best done in subjects with endocrine system, immune system, and central nervous system, something humans and animals have.

What about the use of computer models? They would require accurate information that is gathered from animal research. Humans and animals are also biologically similar, having the same set of organs, bloodstream and central nervous system, which is why they are affected with the same diseases and health conditions. Given these circumstances, animals used in experimentation do serve as appropriate research subjects.

Provides an ethical alternative for testing Most people would say that it is unethical to use humans for invasive experimental procedures, especially when it can result in death.

The lives of human volunteers must not be endangered when testing medicines for side effects or potential toxicity. Ethical consideration must also be made when genetic manipulation would be involved.

Human trials must be preceded by animal testing, as stated by the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. But, if animals could talk, they would probably demand the same ethical considerations. Offer benefits to animals themselves Animal experimentation is not only beneficial to humans but animals as well.

If the vaccines were not tested on them, a lot of them could have died from rabies, infectious hepatitis virus, anthrax, feline leukemia, and canine parvovirus. Remedies for hip dysplasia and glaucoma were also discovered through animal testing. But the real highlight is that vivisection helped kept endangered species, such as the California condor, the tamarins of Brazil, and the black-footed ferret, from becoming extinct.

This is why animal testing is endorsed by the American Veterinary Medical Association. Allow researchers to study a test subject for a whole life span Humans can live up to 80 years or more, which means some scientists would be dead before others results will be gathered. Laboratory mice, on the other hand, only live for 2 to 3 years, giving researchers an opportunity to study effects of genetic manipulation or treatments over an entire lifetime.

In some cases, they can continue to study across several generations. This is why mice and rats have been used for long-term cancer research. Animals are protected from abuse and mistreatment Contrary to what most opponents believe, animal research is highly regulated, with laws enacted to protect animals.

Since , the federal Animal Welfare Act have been regulating animal experimentation. Fewer animals are used in research than as food for humans Compared to the amount of chicken, cattle, sheep and pigs that humans eat, relatively few of them are used in experimentation.

With consideration to the medical progress and advancement such tests provided, it is a small price to pay. To illustrate, for every chicken used in research, an equivalent of are used as food. Cruel and inhumane treatment Protocols in animal testing are often painful to the test subjects. They are forced fed, deprived of food and water, restrained physically for prolonged periods, inflicted with burns, wounds and pain to test for healing process effects and remedies, and even killed through neck-breaking or asphyxiation.

This is according to the Humane Society International. The clips usually stay on for days, and to ensure the rabbits stay in place, they are incapacitated. Some experimentation also involves using lethal doses of certain chemicals to determine how much can kill animals. Animals make poor test subjects This statement is a direct contradiction from what proponents believe about how closely related animals and humans are anatomically and biologically, because of the many metabolic, cellular, and anatomical differences between the two species.

Using rats for toxicity, for example, must not be accepted as reliable since humans are nowhere close to being kilogram rats, according to Thomas Hartung, professor of evidence-based toxicology at Johns Hopkins University. This is further supported by the study in the Archives of Toxicology that states that the lack of direct comparison of human data versus that of a mouse makes the usefulness of research data dubious.

Success in animal experimentation does not equate to human safety When the sleeping pill thalidomide was tested on pregnant rats, mice, cats and guinea pigs, there were no incidence of birth defects, except when administered at extremely high doses. However, when it was used by pregnant women, it resulted in severe deformities affecting 10, babies.

Can lead to misleading research Some medicines and products that are harmful to animals are actually valuable to humans. Aspirin, for example, was almost shelved because it proved dangerous for animals. Imagine what would have happened if aspirin was completely taken off the pharmaceutical list?

There would have been no way to lower the risk of organ transplant being rejected. Most animals used in testing and research are not protected by the Animal Welfare Act AWA As of , only over 1 million animals are covered by the AWA, leaving around 25 million more unprotected from mistreatment and abuse.

These include birds, fish, mice and rats. And because vivisections within laboratory walls are regulated by the committee that the facility itself selected, animal subjects are even more at risk of being treated like prisoners in a hospital for their entire existence. The animals were so stressed out psychologically that they resorted to self-mutilation. The rest of the violations that NIRC committed were caught on a video footage, showing the heartbreaking conditions of the animals.

But this facility is just one of the many that violates AWA. There are less expensive alternatives to animal experimentation Despite what proponents insist, cell cultures in a petri dish, or in vitro in glass testing, are not exactly useless or insufficient. They can even produce results that are more relevant than animal experimentation.

The same thing is true when using artificial human skin as a test subject, instead of animal skin. Virtual reconstructions of human molecular structures done through computer models also have the capacity to predict toxicity levels of substances, so no need to poison animals to collect data and draw conclusions.

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Should the use of animals in research be a mandatory part of modern progressive science? Yes; Currently animal testing is a compulsory, legal part of drug testing. Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell cultures, computer modelling and human clinical trials.

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Relatively few animals are used in research, which is a small price to pay for advancing medical progress. People in the United States eat 9 billion chickens and million cattle, pigs and sheep annually, yet we only use around 26 million animals for research, 95% of which are rodents, birds and fish.

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Importance of use of animals in scientific research. For a question should animals be used for experimentation, we put some light to understand the type of experimentation being conducted. For the verification of new medicine or complex whether it is fatal to use in humans medical research requires the use of animals. Why Are Animals Used in Research? Human beings use animals for a wide variety of purposes, including research. The approximately million people in the United States keep about million dogs and cats as pets.

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Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research? Essay. millions of animals experience painful, suffering and death due to results of scientific research as the effects of drugs, medical procedures, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. Should Animals Be Used in Research - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. animal use.