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❶His answer was a policy called "Vietnamization.

The Vietnam War in a Broader Context

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Thank you for understanding! Please, enter email address. Write My Research Paper. Writing Paraphrasing Editing Proofreading Formatting. Please accept our Terms. Your message has been successfully sent! Daniel Ellsberg knew the leaders of the task force well. He had worked as an aide to McNaughton from to , had worked on the study for several months in , and Gelb and Halperin approved his access to the work at RAND in Before publication, The New York Times sought legal advice.

The New York Times began publishing excerpts on June 13, ; the first article in the series was titled "Vietnam Archive: The study was dubbed The Pentagon Papers during the resulting media publicity.

To ensure the possibility of public debate about the papers' content, on June 29, US Senator Mike Gravel , an Alaska Democrat, entered 4, pages of the papers into the record of his Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds. These portions of the papers, which were edited for Gravel by Howard Zinn and Noam Chomsky , were subsequently published by Beacon Press , the publishing arm of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations. Leonard Rodberg, a Gravel aide, was subpoenaed to testify about his role in obtaining and arranging for publication of the Pentagon Papers.

Gravel asked the court in Gravel v. That clause provides that "for any Speech or Debate in either House, [a Senator or Representative] shall not be questioned in any other Place", meaning that Gravel could not be prosecuted for anything said on the Senate floor, and, by extension, for anything entered to the Congressional Record , allowing the papers to be publicly read without threat of a treason trial and conviction.

When Gravel's request was reviewed by the U. Supreme Court, the Court denied the request to extend this protection to Gravel or his legislative aide, Leonard Rodberg, because the grand jury subpoena served on them related to a third party rather than any act they themselves committed for the preparation of materials later entered into the Congressional Record. Nevertheless, the grand jury investigation was halted, and the publication of the papers was never prosecuted.

Later, Ellsberg said the documents "demonstrated unconstitutional behavior by a succession of presidents, the violation of their oath and the violation of the oath of every one of their subordinates. President Nixon at first planned to do nothing about publication of the study since it embarrassed the Johnson and Kennedy administrations rather than his. But Henry Kissinger convinced the president that not opposing the publication set a negative precedent for future secrets.

Mitchell and Nixon obtained a federal court injunction forcing the New York Times to cease publication after three articles. Newspapers, as our editorial said this morning, were really [ sic , possibly "revealing"] a part of history that should have been made available, considerably longer ago. I just didn't feel there was any breach of national security, in the sense that we were giving secrets to the enemy.

The newspaper appealed the injunction, and the case New York Times Co. United States U. Bagdikian brought the information to editor Ben Bradlee. That day, Assistant U. After the paper refused, Rehnquist sought an injunction in U. Judge Murray Gurfein declined to issue such an injunction, writing that "[t]he security of the Nation is not at the ramparts alone.

Security also lies in the value of our free institutions. A cantankerous press, an obstinate press, a ubiquitous press must be suffered by those in authority to preserve the even greater values of freedom of expression and the right of the people to know. On June 30, , the Supreme Court decided, 6—3, that the government failed to meet the heavy burden of proof required for prior restraint injunction.

The nine justices wrote nine opinions disagreeing on significant, substantive matters. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell. As the press rooms of the Times and the Post began to hum to the lifting of the censorship order, the journalists of America pondered with grave concern the fact that for fifteen days the 'free press' of the nation had been prevented from publishing an important document and for their troubles had been given an inconclusive and uninspiring 'burden-of-proof' decision by a sharply divided Supreme Court.

There was relief, but no great rejoicing, in the editorial offices of America's publishers and broadcasters. Ellsberg surrendered to authorities in Boston, and admitted that he had given the papers to the press: I did this clearly at my own jeopardy and I am prepared to answer to all the consequences of this decision".

The bizarre events have incurably infected the prosecution of this case. In March , political scientist Samuel L. Popkin , then assistant professor of Government at Harvard University , was jailed for a week for his refusal to answer questions before a grand jury investigating the Pentagon Papers case, during a hearing before the Boston Federal District Court. The Faculty Council later passed a resolution condemning the government's interrogation of scholars on the grounds that "an unlimited right of grand juries to ask any question and to expose a witness to citations for contempt could easily threaten scholarly research".

The Beacon Press edition was also incomplete. Halperin, who had originally classified the study as secret, obtained most of the unpublished portions under the Freedom of Information Act and the University of Texas published them in The National Security Archive published the remaining portions in The study itself remained formally classified until The Pentagon Papers revealed that the United States had expanded its war with the bombing of Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which had been reported by the American media.

For example, the Eisenhower administration actively worked against the Geneva Accords. Kennedy administration knew of plans to overthrow South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem before his death in a November coup. President Johnson had decided to expand the war while promising "we seek no wider war" during his presidential campaign, [9] including plans to bomb North Vietnam well before the Election.

President Johnson had been outspoken against doing so during the election and claimed that his opponent Barry Goldwater was the one that wanted to bomb North Vietnam. In another example, a memo from the Defense Department under the Johnson Administration listed the reasons for American persistence:. Another controversy was that President Johnson sent combat troops to Vietnam by July 17, , before pretending to consult his advisors on July 21—27, per the cable stating that " Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance informs McNamara that President had approved 34 Battalion Plan and will try to push through reserve call-up.

In , when that cable was declassified, it revealed "there was a continuing uncertainty as to [Johnson's] final decision, which would have to await Secretary McNamara's recommendation and the views of Congressional leaders, particularly the views of Senator [Richard] Russell. Nixon's Solicitor General Erwin N.

Griswold later called the Pentagon Papers an example of "massive overclassification" with "no trace of a threat to the national security. After the release of the Pentagon Papers , Goldwater said:. During the campaign, President Johnson kept reiterating that he would never send American boys to fight in Vietnam. As I say, he knew at the time that American boys were going to be sent.

In fact, I knew about ten days before the Republican Convention. You see I was being called trigger-happy, warmonger, bomb happy, and all the time Johnson was saying, he would never send American boys, I knew damn well he would. Senator Birch Bayh , who thought the publishing of the Pentagon Papers was justified, said:. The existence of these documents, and the fact that they said one thing and the people were led to believe something else, is a reason we have a credibility gap today, the reason people don't believe the government.

This is the same thing that's been going on over the last two-and-a-half years of this administration. There is a difference between what the President says and what the government actually does, and I have confidence that they are going to make the right decision, if they have all the facts. The full release was coordinated by the Archives's National Declassification Center NDC as a special project to mark the anniversary of the report.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U. For the film, see The Pentagon Papers film. New York Times Co. The New York Times. How We Got Here: New York, New York:

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The Vietnam War originated as a civil war between the North and South. However, soon enough, the United States would find interest in the Vietnam War. American involvement stemmed from several areas of concern, as Communist North Vietnamese guerilla forces attempted to overthrow the current government in Vietnam.

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Nov 20,  · The Vietnam War is considered to be one of the most important events in the history of the United States. This event influenced the lives of millions of3/5(19).

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Jun 12,  · In addition to publication in the Times, Post, Boston Globe and other newspapers, portions of the Pentagon Papers entered the public record when Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska, an outspoken critic of the Vietnam War, read them aloud in a Senate subcommittee hearing. Real reasons why the US started the Vietnam War; The comparison of Johnson’s and Nixon’s Vietnam War strategies. Main objectives of the government of the US and Vietnam during the war. The role of media in formulating the opinion of the public opinion about Vietnam War. The influence of the antiwar movements in the US.

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In his book titled “The Vietnam War: A Concise International History,” Mark Lawrence proposed that the broader international context of the cold war along with the openness to influence of Vietnam allowed the war to take place in the first place. The overall openness to influence stems from Vietnam's transition from their colonial past with France to the /5(10). The Vietnam War spanned from to and had the name, the Second Indochina War, prior to the United States involvement. The initial cause for the war was a battle between communist North Vietnam and its southern allies, the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its allies, the key ally being the United States.