Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or bio. Water pollution occurs when people overload the water environment with wastes.
It's defined as contamination of streams, lakes, underground water, bays or oceans by substances harmful to living things. Water is necessary to life on earth. All organisms contain it, some drink it, and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is. This is the planet we live on, we should take care of it like we would take care of a new pet.
But instead we neglect it. You may think you don't do much to pollute the earth, but everyone does a little part of it. Trees are a sours of our oxygen but we cut them down to make room for houses and make paper. If you smock chances are you've left buds laying around somewhere and it takes them around t. Nigeria is an oil exporting nation.
The economy of the nation is entirely dependable on the export of crude oil. In fact, ninety percent of the Nigeria's foreign income is acquired through oil export.
The financial benefits of Nigeria's oil and gas exploitation and productions are undoubtable. However, the consequential impact the activities of the oil industry to the environment cannot be discoun.
The practice of ocean dumping should be banned. Marine pollution is at the heart of interest in today's search for a clean environment. Not only does ocean dumping add to the unsightliness of the once beautiful and pristine waters; it also kills the marine life which inhabits those waters.
Pollution on a grand-scale is wreaking havoc on the Earth. The ocean is not an exception. In , a bill,. Water pollution needs to be stopped.
Pollution of lakes rivers, streams, and oceans has been killing land and water animals for years. Polluting water is a horrible act and will be stopped. Water pollution kills all kinds of animals every year. Pollution is a bane for society or life. All sorts of pollution like air pollution, water pollution, sound pollution, noise pollution, food pollution have been affecting greatly the dwellers. The sources or origins of pollution are described in short details: Air is one of the most important elements of our environment for our survival.
It is a natural gift and a free asset. Most kinds of air pollution can be controlled by modern technology, but the costs ultimately be borne by the public in the form of higher prices for manufactured goods, higher taxes, reduced profit margins in industry, and more restrictions on individual activities such as burning leaves and trash and use of automobiles. The benefits involve not only improved environmental quality, but improved he. Every human society, be it rural, urban, industrial and most technologically advanced society, dispose of certain kinds of by-products and waste products which when are injected into the biosphere in quantities so great that they affect the normal functioning of ecosystems and have an adverse effect on plants, animals, and man are collectively called pollutants Smith, Types of water pollution may be classified by the medium in which they occur, such as surface water pollution, ground water pollution, soil water pollution, etc.
It is widely accepted that continuous farming of same crop will degrade the soil quality and the soil bed gradually loses all its nutrients. As a result, to provide proper nutrition to the seeds, farmers use pesticides and insecticides to give artificial nutrition. This is bringing down soil quality and damaging elements of the soil as soil will lose the water retaining capability. This will slowly turn fertile lands into drought prone areas because soil will lose its natural tendency to hold water and retain moisture.
Solution for this would be to include some other crop in between major crop seasons. So, farmers could grow pulses in between major crop seasons which would help to hold the nitrogen contents tightly in the soil. People never cared about proper waste management. In big cities, even today we find heaps of garbage lying unattended at some of road corners. People just throw garbage carelessly or place them outside their homes in the hope of a garbage collector working to dispose it in a proper way.
Certainly, it is not taking place as efficiently as it looks. Every day we dispose millions of tons of waste which gets dumped either on the earth surface or thrown in water bodies or below the ground level. These wastes, especially plastics never decompose as most of them are non bio-degradable.
Now the waste degrades the soil slowly such that the impact is seen after many years. Industries produce wastes and effluents in abundance which are either thrown into oceans or left free to decay over ground.
Openly dumping wastes is harmful for soil, air or water as they contain toxic elements which are highly toxic and hazardous. Waste materials make soil hard which makes soil unfit for cultivation.
Moreover it is harmful for humans too as toxic gases get mixed with air or vegetation which causes diseases or life threatening complications. When soil loses its water holding capacity due to pollution, it becomes unfit for cultivation. Huge lands which were fertile before could carry the risk of turning into barren lands, totally unfit for cultivation. Such a chemically-high concentrated soil bed usually deteriorates the natural essence of cultivable lands.
In the process, crops are destroyed and farming produces are not generated evenly. When soil cannot retain moisture, large parts of land get washed away when it rains heavily. This is how the forest cover of a country is lost by man-made activities. Pollution is harmful for economic development. Productive soils are necessary for agriculture to supply the world with sufficient food.
Soil pollution is defined as persistent of toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.
A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil or which disturbs the biological balance of the organisms in the soil. Pollution in soil has adverse effect on plant growth. Mainly soil pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil.
The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. Occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage. Soil nutrients are vital for plant growth and development. Plants obtain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen from air and water. All other necessary nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and more must be obtained from the soil.
Farmers generally use fertilizers to correct soil deficiencies. Fertilizers contaminate the soil with impurities, which come from the raw materials used for their manufacture. For instance, As, Pb and Cd present in traces in rock phosphate mineral get transferred to super phosphate fertilizer. Since the metals are not degradable, their accumulation in the soil above their toxic levels due to excessive use of phosphate fertilizers becomes an indestructible poison for crops.
Fertilizers are very valuable, as they replace the soil nutrients used up by plants. The three primary soil nutrients often in short supply are potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen NPK compounds. These are commonly referred to as macronutrients. Certain other elements like boron, zinc and manganese are necessary in extremely small amounts and are known as micronutrients.
When crops are harvested, a large amount of macronutrients and a small amount of micronutrients are removed with the crops. If the same crop is grown again, depleted levels of the nutrients can result in decreased yields.
These necessary nutrients can be returned to the soil through the application of fertilizers. The over use of NPK fertilizers reduce quantity of vegetables and crops grown on soil over the years. It also reduces the protein content of wheat, maize, grams, etc. The carbohydrate quality of such crops also gets degraded.
Excess potassium content in soil decreases vitamin C and carotene content in vegetables and fruits. The vegetables and fruits grown on over- fertilized soil are more prone to attacks by insects and disease. The use of chemical fertilizers has increased significantly over the last few decades and is expected to rise even higher.
In addition to fertilizers, a large amount of pesticides chemicals used to kill or control populations of unwanted fungi, animals or plants often called pests are also used to ensure a good yield. Pesticides can be subdivided into several categories, based on the kinds of organisms they are used to control. Insecticides are used to control insect populations, while fungicides are used to control unwanted fungal growth. Mice and rats are killed by rodenticides, while plant pests are controlled by herbicides.
Insects soon became resistant to DDT and as the chemical did not decompose readily, it persisted in the environment. Since it was soluble in fat rather than water, it biomagnified up the food chain and disrupted calcium metabolism in birds, causing eggshells to be thin and fragile. As a result, large birds of prey such as the brown pelican, ospreys, falcons and eagles became endangered.
DDT has been now banned in most western countries. Ironically many of them including USA still produce DDT for export to other developing nations whose needs outweigh the problems caused by it. The most important pesticides are DDT, BHC, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, aldrin, malathion, dieldrin, furodan, etc.
The remnants of such pesticides may get adsorbed by the soil particles, which then contaminate root crops grown in that soil. The consumption of such crops causes the pesticides remnants to enter human biological systems, affecting them adversely. An infamous herbicide used as a defoliant in the Vietnam War called Agent Orange dioxin , was eventually banned. It had caused cancer, skin conditions and infertility in soldiers.
Pesticides not only bring toxic effect on human and animals but also decrease the fertility of the soil. Some of the pesticides are quite stable and their bio- degradation may take weeks and even months.
For example, DDT, one of the first synthetic organic insecticides to be used, was thought to be the perfect insecticide. During the first ten years of its use , DDT is estimated to have saved about five million lives primarily because of its use to control disease-carrying mosquitoes. However, after a period of use, many mosquitoes and insects became tolerant to DDT, thus making it lose its effectiveness.
In temperate regions, DDT has a half-life the amount of time required for half of the chemical to decompose of years. This means that if kg of DDT were to be sprayed over an area, 50 kg would still be present in the area years later.
The half-life of DDT varies according to the soil type, temperature, kind of soil organisms present, and other factors. In tropical parts of the world, the half-life may be as short as 6 months. Persistent pesticides become attached to small soil particles which are easily moved by wind and water to different parts thus affecting soils elsewhere.
Persistent pesticides may also accumulate in the bodies of animals, and over a period of time increase in concentration if the animal is unable to flush them out of its system, thus leading to the phenomenon called bioaccumulation. When an affected animals is eaten by another carnivore, these pesticides are further concentrated in the body of the carnivore.
This process, especially in the case of insecticides like DDT, has been proved to be disastrous. In general, solid waste includes garbage, domestic refuse and discarded solid materials such as those from commercial, industrial and agricultural operations. They contain a large amounts of paper, cardboards, plastics, glass, old construction material, packaging material and toxic or otherwise hazardous substances.
Land gets dumping of industrial wastes, municipal wastes, medicals or hospital wastes. Industrial solid wastes and sludge are the major sources of soil pollution by toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds and heavy metals. The fall-out from industrial emissions, for example the fly ash emitted by thermal power plants, can pollute surrounding lands.
We must keep in mind that the particulates of the industrial emissions from the tall chimney always come back to the earth surface sooner or later. Radioactive tests from nuclear testing laboratories and nuclear power plants and the radioactive fall-out from the nuclear explosions also contaminate the soil. Radioactive materials thrive in the soil for long periods because they usually have a long half-life.
Stroncium, for example, has a half-life of 28 years, and the half-life of Caesium is 30 years. Municipal wastes mainly include domestic and kitchen wastes, market wastes, hospital wastes, livestock and poultry wastes, slaughterhouse wastes, waste metals, glass and ceramic wastes, etc. Hospital wastes contain organic materials, chemicals, metal needles, plastic and glass bottles, vials, etc.
Dumping of domestic sewage and hospital organic wastes contaminate the environment with a variety of pathogens that can seriously affect human health. The portion of solid waste that is hazardous such as oils, battery metals, heavy metals from smelting industries and organic solvents are the ones we have to pay particular attention to. These can in the long run, get deposited to the soils of the surrounding area and pollute them by altering their chemical and biological properties.
Toxic chemicals leached into the soil underneath homes, causing an unusually large number of birth defects, cancers and respiratory, nervous and kidney diseases.
Soil erosion occurs when the weathered soil particles are dislodged and carried away by wind or water. Deforestation, agricultural development, temperature extremes, precipitation including acid rain, and human activities contribute to this erosion.
Humans speed up this process by construction, mining, cutting of timber, over cropping and overgrazing. It results in floods and cause soil erosion.
Soil Pollution Essay 5 ( words) Soil pollution is the contamination of the fertile soil which reduces the productivity of soil because of various toxic pollutants. Toxic pollutants are very dangerous and adversely affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
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Essay # 5. Control of Soil Pollution: There are different types of soil pollution, namely agricultural soil pollution, industrial waste causing soil pollution, urbanization causing soil pollution. These different types of pollution cause the fertility of the soil to reduce and mineral content in the soil to be destroyed. Soil pollution can be defined as the contamination of soil bringing adverse affects on the organisms in it. It can also be defined as the addition of unwanted substances in odd proportion. It can also be defined as the addition of unwanted substances in odd proportion.
Essay on Soil Pollution. Soil pollution is defined as the concentration of soil by huge amounts of toxic and poisonous substances that contaminate the soil and make it totally unfit for cultivation. Soil loses its natural vitality and balance of elements, degrading its quality and lending. Soil pollution. Soil pollution refers the presence of the toxic chemicals on the earth, which makes the pollutant to the ground of the earth. It reduces the productivity on the land. The soil pollution effect on the physical-chemical and biological properties of the soil and reduces its productivity.