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Sample Footnotes in MLA Style

Basic Chapter Citation

❶All changes to the document should be made to the original document.

This article is a part of the guide:

What Are Footnotes?
February 13, 2014

Most often, editors of books, journals and other media will ask that parenthetical information be included in footnotes as a way to control the prose of the document. When used properly, a footnote is an excellent way to add to work or to quickly cite or reference quotes and other secondary information.

The entire essay is typed double-spaced, except for Footnote citations at the foot of the page. If your instructor prefers that paragraphs not be indented, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs.

More empty space is created for the instructor to write comments when paragraphs are not indented. Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space.

The Footnote citations must be added at the foot or bottom of the SAME page where you have cited the sources. All first Footnote references must be cited in full. If the source cited has no author stated, use whatever minimal information is needed to identify the work previously cited, e.

Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. It is recommended that you use Endnotes in place of Footnotes. This will eliminate the need to allow sufficient space to accommodate all the required Footnote entries at the bottom of the same page where your citations occur.

If your instructor has no preference, use the much simpler Parenthetical Documentation in place of Footnotes or Endnotes. Begin your Footnote citations four lines quadruple space below your text. Follow the spacing as shown in the example below, e. Do not indent the second and subsequent lines of Footnotes. This simple guide helps to explain how to reference your essay or dissertation in either style. Referencing is the practice of ensuring that every time you cite a book or study or indeed any piece of work by another writer, you accurately inform your reader of your source.

It also shows a reader or examiner the extent of the research that exists to support your work and allows them to consult it themselves. The first thing to be aware of is that there are several different accepted referencing methods , all of which have slight variations in format.

This often causes a great deal of confusion, but the most important thing is to be consistent. You may well find that a specific referencing system is prescribed for a piece of work, but if not just make sure that whichever form you choose, you are consistent in using it throughout and keeping all your references uniform in format. Once you have decided how to reference, stick with that system throughout your essay.

Two of the most well-known and commonly used referencing methods are Oxford and Harvard referencing. These are the systems you are most likely to be asked to use for an essay or thesis and also the most widely recognised, so it is advisable to use one of these if you are choosing your own reference system. The main difference between these two systems is that the Oxford method uses footnotes to place references at the end of each page, whilst the Harvard method includes certain information within the text.

There are many complex details involved in using these styles of referencing, which would be too numerous to list here, so it is highly advisable to consult an in-depth guide to how to reference correctly.

The information below is intended to give an overview of the main points and some helpful advice to bear in mind when using them. This form of referencing uses footnotes to present referencing information unobtrusively at the bottom of each page of text.

A small number called a note identifier usually formatted in superscript follows any quote you use and refers to the number at the bottom of the page beside which the citation for that reference may be found. Most computers have helpful functions to enable you to do this automatically without having to enter the numbers yourself, so if you go back to add an extra reference, the numbering will automatically adjust to take this into account.

A footnote should contain the following information, with the title of the book or work in italics and all other text in normal font: You can usually find the publication date and place on the reverse of the title page inside the book. If you use further references to the same text later on you can abbreviate subsequent footnotes to simply: The Harvard referencing system includes the author, the date of the work and the page number in brackets in the body of the text, immediately following the quote or reference.

Depending on a company's goals, there are a variety of reasons top management may decide to undertake cost controls; it could be for proven cost reduction Corbridge, , p. In the Harvard style, a bibliography of the all references is included as a separate section at the end of the piece of work to give full details of each text, including its title, publisher and place of publication. This is by no means a complete guide to the intricacies of how to reference, but it is hopefully a helpful introduction to clear up the common confusion between the two main referencing styles.

Footnotes vs. Endnotes

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Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space.

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Guide to Essay Writing - Footnotes. Contents. Footnotes. Footnotes, notes or endnotes As a rule-of-thumb one could say that, although footnotes or notes are necessary, your interpretation should be able to stand without them. Thus, you should not carry on your main argument in footnotes.

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Definition of footnotes in word count? Include textboxes, etc. Openstax college essay writing paper footnotes at the jan 18, visa bulletin analysis essay and look one of our precision is jan 08, Also to serve as it easy. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.

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Add a footnote to your essay to cite all quotes and paraphrased material. Do this to give credit to your sources and to make it easy for your reader to find the source that you are citing. Footnotes are auxiliary information that further clarifies certain points being made in the essay. Since this isn’t a part of the body of the essay, most teachers and professors do not count footnotes as part of the essay’s word count.